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Medication control

All horses taking part in any endurance ride/event should compete on their own merits and not under the influence of any prohibited substance. The FEI laboratories are very well equipped to detect even a smallest quantity of drugs or its byproduct metabolite. The FEI has streamlined the process of adjudication of positive cases, for more information check the FEI website or the Federation.

Pleasenote that in all equestrian events in the UAE- Endurance, show jumping and Dressage, a number of horses are randomly selected and are sampled to test for the prohibited substances. If the horse is tested positive, the Judicial Committee of FEI will follow all the legal procedures after notifying the person responsible (rider/trainer/stable veterinarian) through his National Federation. Depending on te type of the drug detected the FEI will disqualify the rider and impose a fine. In severe cases, it may even suspend the rider for a period of time.

The Federation requests a;; those concerned to be very careful with regard to the usage of drugs and be aware of the withdrawal period of all the prohibited substances before usage. To guide our patrons better we attach a copy of the Annex II VRs- Equine Prohibited List. (link)

The Equestrian Federation is always available for any clarification.
 

Medication control

 

All horses taking part in any endurance ride/event should compete on their own merits and not under the influence of any prohibited substance. The FEI laboratories are very well equipped to detect even a smallest quantity of drugs or its byproduct metabolite. The FEI has streamlined the process of adjudication of positive cases, for more information check the FEI website or the Federation.

Pleasenote that in all equestrian events in the UAE- Endurance, show jumping and Dressage, a number of horses are randomly selected and are sampled to test for the prohibited substances. If the horse is tested positive, the Judicial Committee of FEI will follow all the legal procedures after notifying the person responsible (rider/trainer/stable veterinarian) through his National Federation. Depending on te type of the drug detected the FEI will disqualify the rider and impose a fine. In severe cases, it may even suspend the rider for a period of time.

The Federation requests a;; those concerned to be very careful with regard to the usage of drugs and be aware of the withdrawal period of all the prohibited substances before usage. To guide our patrons better we attach a copy of the Annex II VRs- Equine Prohibited List. (link) 

The Equestrian Federation is always available for any clarification.

 UAE WANT TO KEEP THE STATUS OF FREEDOM FROM THIS DISEASE AND THIS CAN ONLY BE DONE BY REGULAR VACCINATIONS OF OUR HORSES.

EQUINE INFLUENZA VACCINATION

From 1 January 2005 onwards, influenza vaccination for all horses competing in FEI competitions requires a vaccination within six months + 21 days of the competition.
1. All horses intending to participate in FEI competition must have at least received an initial primary course of two vaccinations, given between 21 and 92 days apart. Thereafter, a third dose (referred to as the first booster) must be given within 6 months + 21 days after the date of administration of the second primary dose, with at least annual boosters given subsequently (i.e. within one year of the last dose).

2. If the horse is scheduled to take part in an FEI competition, the last booster must have been given within 6 months + 21 days of arrival at the FEI event. (The 21‐day window has been provided to enable vaccination requirements to fit in with the competition schedule).
3. No vaccination shall be given within 7 days of the day of arrival at the FEI event.
4. All horses that were certified as correctly vaccinated under the previous FEI equine influenza vaccination rule prior to 1st January 2005, do not need to start a primary course again provided that they have complied with the previous rule of primary course and annual re-vaccinations and the new rule of a booster vaccination within 6 months + 21 days of the day of arrival at the FEI event.

Vaccines, Administration and Certification

• All proprietary equine influenza vaccines are acceptable to the FEI irrespective of the route of administration.
• All vaccines must be administered by a Veterinarian.
• The vaccination should be administered according to the manufacturer’s instructions, (i.e. intramuscular injection or intranasal).
• The details of the vaccine, serial/batch number, the date and route of administration must be recorded in the FEI passport.
• Where vaccination details are to be entered into new FEI passports/recognition cards or duplicates, if the vaccination history of the horse is very long, the Veterinarian who completes the descriptive page of the passport/recognition card may use a specific statement to certify that the vaccinations have been administered in accordance with FEI regulations (for the extract of the wording see Veterinary Regulations, Annex XIII.I.11).

Sanctions
As from 1 January 2006 a system of fines is being imposed by the Appeal Committee/Ground Jury for failure to comply with 6‐month booster vaccination prior to event arrival.
o Less than one week after the 3-week vaccination window: CHF 200
o Less than two weeks after the 3-week vaccination window: CHF 300
o Less than four weeks after the 3-week vaccination window: CHF 400
o More than four weeks after the 3-week vaccination window: CHF 500, and
cancellation of the horse’s participation in the event.

• If there is no evidence of any current vaccination in passport: or if the period at any stage is more than 12 months a maximum penalty of CHF 500 can be imposed. The horse should not be allowed to compete. It must be put in isolation and sent away from the event as soon as possible.
• Provided the current passport contains a statement that the vaccination history of the horse has been checked and found to be correct (for exact wording see VR, Annex XII.I.11), the lack of information available on the primary vaccination course need not lead to a penalty, and a repeat primary course is not required.
For horses starting vaccinations after 1st January 2005, when the first booster has not been given (6 months +/- 21 days after the second injection of the primary course), the horse should receive a new primary course followed by a booster vaccination 6 months (+/- 21 days) later. A warning should be written down in the passport. The horse may compete providing that it complies with the rules in every other way.
• Any infringements of vaccination dates should be noted on the vaccination page in the passport so that it is not reported again at a future event. Please write in CAPITAL letters; remember that others will be dependent on the information that you have written in the passport. If possible, add a copy of the vaccination page with the infringement to your Vet Report to the FEI.


ANNEX II
EQUINE PROHIBITED LIST
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED IN COMPETITION
PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES (DOPING)

Agents, cocktails or mixtures of substances that may affect the performance of a horse; masking agents; substances with no generally accepted medical use in competition horses; substances which are usually products prescribed for use in humans or other species; agents used to hypersensitise or desensitise the limbs or body parts, including but not limited to:
• two or more anti‐inflammatory drugs (steroidal and/or non‐steroidal) or other
combinations of ant-inflammatory substances with similar or distinct pharmacological actions;
• antipsychotic, anti‐epileptic and antihypertensive substances including reserpine, gabapentin, fluphenazine, and guanabenz;
• antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs);
• tranquilizers, sedatives (including sedating antihistaminics) commonly used in humans and/or non‐equine species, including benzodiazepines, barbiturates and azaperone ;
• narcotics and opioid analgesics; endorphins;
• amphetamines and other central nervous system (CNS) stimulants including cocaine and related psychotic drugs;
• beta-blockers including propranolol, atenolol, and timolol;
• diuretics and other masking agents;
• anabolic steroids (including testosterone in mares and geldings) and growth
promoters;
• peptides and genetically recombinant substances such as erythropoietin, insulin growth factor and growth hormone;
• hormonal products (natural or synthesized) including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (above the threshold);
• substances designed and marketed primarily for human use or use in other species and for which alternative and generally accepted products are available for use in horses;
• hypersensitizing or desensitizing agents (organic or inorganic or other substances likely to have been applied to body parts or to tack to influence performance);
• oxygen carriers;
and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).


PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES (MEDICATION CLASS A)

Agents which could influence performance by relieving pain, sedating, stimulating or producing/modifying other physiological or behavioural effects, including:
• local anaesthetics;
• sympathomimetic cardiac stimulants;
• central and respiratory stimulants;
• clenbuterol and other bronchodilators and products used for the treatment of
recurrent airway disease (RAD);
• a single non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drug ± metabolite(s);
• a single corticosteroid;
• sedatives or tranquillisers indicated for equine use including antihistamines; thiamine;
valerian and other herbal products other than those listed as Prohibited Substances
(Doping);
• muscle relaxants including methocarbamol and propantheline;
• anti‐coagulants including heparin or warfarin;
and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).

PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES (MEDICATION CLASS B)

Substances that either have limited performance enhancing potential or to which horses may have been accidentally exposed, including certain dietary contaminants. These are listed below:
• isoxsuprine;
• dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) when above the threshold;
• mucolytics and cough suppressants: bromhexine and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s);
• hyoscine (n-butyl-scopolamine); Atropine and other anticholinergic substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s);
• plant or animal derivatives: bufotenine, hordenine, tyrosine, gamma‐oryzanol and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s);
• terpines and inorganic contaminants (other than those detected on skin or tack
swabs);
• evacuants: magnesium sulphatesulfate and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).


THRESHOLD SUBSTANCES

Horses may compete with the presence of certain substances in their tissues, body fluids or excreta for which threshold levels/ratios are listed below, provided the concentration of the substance is not greater than the threshold level/ratio indicated. Thresholds only apply to:
• substances endogenous to the horse;
• substances arising from plants traditionally grazed or harvested as equine feed; or
• substances in equine feed arising from contamination during normal cultivation,
processing or treatment, storage or transportation.

The following constitutes an exclusive list of substances for which a threshold has been established. For each substance, a concentration level beneath that indicated is not an EADMC Rule violation:

Available carbon dioxide (CO2) 36 millimoles per litre in plasma
Boldenone
0.015 microgram free and conjugated
Boldenone (other than geldings) per millilitre in urine from
male horses (other than geldings)
Dimethyl sulphoxidesulfoxide 15 micrograms per ml in urine or 1
microgram per ml in plasma
Estranediol in male Horses
(other than Geldings)
Free and conjugated 5α‐estrane‐3β,
17α‐diol 0.045 micrograms per ml in
urine
Hydrocortisone 1 microgram per ml in urine
Salicylic acid 625 micrograms per ml in urine or 5.4
micrograms per ml in plasma
Testosterone 0.02 micrograms free and conjugated
testosterone per ml in urine from
geldings,
or
0.055 micrograms free and conjugated
testosterone per ml in urine from fillies
and mares (unless in foal).


VETERINARY REGULATIONS
11th edition 2009
Annex II
A note on analytical detection levels and irrelevant concentrations of certain substances Screening Limits of Detection (SLODs) are established on the basis of risk management to control the sensitivity of the screening method for a specified substance in a horses’s urine or blood sample to ensure the integrity of the sport. Where SLODs have been established, they are universally applied by FEI laboratories. Substances for which Detection Times have
been or are being established can be found on the FEI website
(http://www.fei.org/Athletes_AND_Horses/Medication_Control_AND_Antidoping/Horses/Pages/Information.aspx).
It is important to recognise that the Detection Time (DT) is the period of time during which a drug remains in a horse’s system such that it can be detected by the laboratory. The DT is influenced by numerous factors including the size of the horse, the route of administration,the drug formulation, the number of doses administered, individual horse factors (e.g.metabolism, disease, etc.) and the detection limit of the screening method used to detect the drug (unless a quantitative threshold has been adopted by the regulatory authorities).
The Withdrawal Time (WT) for a drug is decided upon by the treating veterinarian and includes the detection time plus a safety margin, chosen with professional judgment and discretion of the treating veterinarian, to allow for individual differences between horses.

This information is provided with the intent to inform Treating Veterinarians and Persons Responsible as fully as possible about current scientific research on certain Prohibited Substances that may be prescribed for treatment of a horse from time to time. The existence or non-existence of a SLOD or Detection Time for a particular substance shall not affect the validity of an Adverse Analytical Finding or the determination of an anti-doping or medication control rule violation according to Article 2 of the EADMC Rules. A horse, as a biological entity, does not necessarily follow the scientific modelling used to provideindicative information.

 

Some frequently asked questions around this disease:

Q: What causes equine influenza?
A: Equine influenza is a viral disease caused by viruses closely related to those that cause flu in people. Two subtypes of influenza A virus are known to cause influenza in horses, these are the subtypes H7N7 (formerly known as A/equine 1) and H3N8 (formerly known as A/equine 2).

Q: What are the signs of equine influenza?
A: Equine influenza appears similar to a range of other viral respiratory diseases including equine herpesvirus, equine rhinovirus and equine adenovirus. Most of these viruses produce rather mild sings which include a runny nose and coughing. Particularly in susceptible animals, equine influenza produces more severe symptoms with horses developing a fever (body temperature of 38.9degC or 102degF or more) and a dry hacking cough. Horses frequently become depressed and reluctant to eat or drink for several days but usually recover in 2 to 3 weeks.

Q: How is influenza virus spread?
A: The virus can be spread easily from horse to horse as a result of droplets released into the air by coughing and also from nasal discharge and from things like infected brushes and rugs. The disease is very contagious and there is almost 100% infection rate in an unvaccinated population that has been previously unexposed to the virus.

Q: What is the incubation time?
A: Most horses exposed to the virus will show signs within a period of one to 5 days.

Q: How is equine influenza diagnosed?
A: Occurrence of a rapidly spreading respiratory infection in a group of horses characterised by rapid onset, high fever, depression, weakness and widespread coughing is usually sufficient to make a presumptive diagnosis of equine influenza. However, because it can be difficult to distinguish from other respiratory infections on the basis of clinical signs alone, laboratory assistance is usually required for a definitive diagnosis. Confirmation is based on detection of virus in nasopharyngeal swabs, which should be taken as soon as possible after the onset of illness, or serology of acute and convalescent sera. In the past, detection of virus in nasopharyngeal swabs relied on being able to grow the virus in embryonated hens' eggs, which takes a minimum of 3 days. Nowadays, rapid tests are available for detecting virus in nasal secretions and same-day results can be obtained.

Q: Can equine influenza be treated?
A: Mildly affected horses recover uneventfully in 2 to 3 weeks and horses that do not develop complications require only rest and good nursing. Rest should be complete and for a sufficient time after clinical signs have gone to prevent long-term lung or myocardial damage. Antipyretics are recommended for horses with a fever of more than 40.5degC (105degF). There are no drugs that can influence the outcome of the disease licensed for use in horses. However, damage to the respiratory tract epithelium means that many horses develop secondary bacterial infections, which can lead to pneumonia and other problems. Treatment with antibiotics to lessen the impact of secondary infections is recommended when fever persists beyond 3 to 4 days or when purulent (snotty) nasal discharges or pulmonary involvement are present.

Q: How can equine influenza be controlled?
A: Control of equine influenza requires sound management and use of vaccination. The likelihood of exposure to infection can be reduced by isolating any horses newly introduced into a stable or group of horses and by minimising contact with other horses. In most countries, racing and other equine authorities require that horses be vaccinated prior to taking part in competitions.

Q: Can vaccination give my horse flu?
A: Most licensed flu vaccines are made from inactivated or killed flu viruses and cannot cause the flu or flu-like illness.

Q: Do equine influenza vaccines work?
A: The duration of protection provided by current vaccines is limited but provided that booster vaccinations are administered and the viruses in the vaccine and circulating viruses are similar, vaccination is very effective.

THE WAY TO DO IT:

1st equine influenza vaccination
2nd vaccination after 21 to 92 days from 1st vaccination
3rd vaccination after 150 to 215 days from 2nd vaccination

Thereafter annually, with the last permissible day being the same date as the previous year's vaccination.

Horses may not start until the 8th day after the day of vaccination.

It is the owner or trainer's legal responsibility to ensure that the horse's vaccination records comply with the UAE Equestrian & Racing Federations National and International regulations.

Horses competing in National (CEN) or international (FEI) competitions must follow the FEI Rules for vaccination:

The FEI requires all horses competing in FEI competition to provide evidence of sufficient vaccination against equine influenza. This involves regular six monthly booster vaccinations following a primary vaccination course, as from January 2005. All horses and ponies for which an FEI Passport or a National Passport approved by the FEI has been issued must have the vaccination section completed and endorsed by a veterinarian, stating that it has received two injections for primary vaccination against equine influenza, given between 1 and 3 months apart. In addition, a booster vaccination must be administered within each succeeding 6 months (± 21 days) following the second vaccination of the primary course. None of these injections must have been given within the preceding 7 days including the day of the competition or of entry into the competition stables.

PASSPORTS OR IDENTIFICATION CARDS

The FEI passport or the National Federations Identification card is a document for Identification of the horse and for registration of its movements. In addition it gives information on the vaccination status of the horse. The passport is mandatory for horses competing at most international FEI sanctioned events. With the NF,s Identification card a horse can compete in National rides and in lower CEI,s in the horse,s residence country.

  • Identification of horses / Identification des chevaux
  • List of identification documents approved by FEI

 

Frequently asked questions

Q: I would like to obtain an FEI passport, who should I contact?
A:
Your national federation will issue an FEI passport for your horse. This passport will have to be filled in by a national federation approved veterinarian after which the federation will stamp and sign it. Some federations have approved national passports; in this case an FEI recognition card will be added to the national passport. (FEI General Regulations, Article 139). Remember that for EU national passports, a treatment logbook must be included, in which all medication used in the horse should be listed.

Q: I've lost my horse's passport, how can I obtain a new one?
A:
You have to contact the national federation. They will issue you a duplicate of your passport keeping the original number. An FEI approved veterinarian will have to complete it and the national federation will stamp and sign the document. The federation will then forward us the information required. (Veterinary Regulations, Annex II pt V)

Q: I have found an old FEI passport for my horse, which I thought was lost, and now my horse has two FEI passports. What must I do?
A:
You have to send both passports to your national federation. The original passport will be re-registered and will be the valid piece of identification. (Veterinary Regulations, Annex II pt V 2)

Q: I've just bought a horse with an FEI passport. What must I do?
A:
You have to send the FEI passport to your national federation. They will certify the change of ownership and forward the information to the FEI. (Veterinary Regulations, Annex II pt 10.1)

Q: For which competitions does my horse need an FEI passport?
A:
This information is available in the FEI General Regulations, Article 139 pts1 - 2. Every horse entered for any competitions must have an official, valid FEI Passport, or a National Passport approved by the FEI and accompanied by an FEI Recognition Card and, when applicable, an FEI registration number, as a means of identification and to establish ownership.


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